Political System

The first provisional Basic Law for Governance was issued in Qatar in 1970 before the state gained its independence. Later on, the amended provisional Basic Law was issued in 1972 after national independence to be compatible with the requirements and responsibilities of this new era.

Through this amendment, the parameters and objectives of the state's policies and its Gulf, Arab and Islamic affiliations were defined. Furthermore, its various authorities and agencies gained experiences derived from actual practice at the internal and external levels.

The constitution legislative amendments addressed some provisions of the Amended Provisional Basic law, with regard to the executive authority and provisions related to the succession of rule in the state, and an update of the constitutional situation in the country. The enactment of the Judiciary Law and other basic laws governing civil and commercial transactions, was a step on the road to complete building of state system and the establishment of the foundations of the state of institutions and law. For this purpose, an Amiri decree was issued to form a committee to draft a permanent constitution for the state in July 1999, in line with the achievements of the State of Qatar.


The System of Government

It is based on the separation of powers. Yet, it shall be exercised in collaboration with the manner specified in the constitution, whereby the Amir assumes the executive power, with the assistance of the Council of Ministers.

The government apparatus in the State of Qatar consists of the Council of Ministers, ministries, government institutions, and a number of other government agencies.

The Shura Council assumes the Legislative Authority, whereas the courts of law assume the Judicial Authority as indicated in the constitution.

The Prime Minister presides over the Council's sessions, manages its discussions, and supervises the coordination of work between the various ministries in order to achieve the unity of government agencies and the integration of their activities.


Council of Ministers

According to Chapter (3) “The Executive Authority “of the Permanent Constitution of the State of Qatar, The formation of the Council of Ministers shall be established by an Amiri Order on a proposal by the Prime Minister. The Amir may entrust the Prime Minister or any other Minister with the functions of one or more ministries. The law shall specify the powers of Ministers.

The Prime Minister shall, preside over the sessions of the Council. He shall organize its proceedings and supervise coordination of work among the various Ministries to achieve unity and harmony among the Governmental organs of the State. The Prime Minister shall sign, in the name and on behalf of the Council of Ministers, decisions made by the Council.

He shall also submit to the Amir the decisions of the Council on matters requiring an Amiri Resolution for approval and issuance in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution. Article (121) of the of the Permanent Constitution of the State of Qatar defined The Council of Minsters as functioning as “as the highest executive organ, to administer all the internal and external affairs falling within its jurisdiction as determined in this Constitution and the provisions of the law”.

Functions of the Council of Ministers

  • Proposal of draft laws and decrees and submission of the same to Al-Shoura Council for debates. If such proposed laws are approved by the Advisory Council, they shall be referred to the Amir for ratification and promulgation in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
  • Approval of the regulations and decisions prepared by the Ministries.
  • Supervision of the implementation of laws, decrees, regulations, and resolutions.
  • Proposals of establishing and organizing of the Government departments, public authorities and corporate bodies according to the law.
  • Appointment and dismissal of civil servants in the cases where such appointment and dismissal do not fall within the jurisdiction of the Amir or the power of the Ministers as specified by the law.
  • Drawing up the general regulations that adequately ensure the maintenance of internal security and public order in all parts of the State in accordance with the law.

  • Administration of the finance of the State and preparation of its draft budget as determined by this Constitution and the provisions of the law.
  • Approval of economic project and methods of their implementation.
  • Supervision of the means for preserving the interests of the State abroad and maintenance of its international relations and foreign affairs.
  • Preparation of a report at the beginning of every fiscal year including a detailed survey of the tasks accomplished internally and abroad. The report shall be accompanied with a plan drawing up the most adequate ways for achieving comprehensive development of the State, providing the necessary conditions for its development and prosperity, and consolidating its security and stability in accordance with the basic guiding principles of the policy of the State as stated in this Constitution. The said report shall be submitted to the Amir for approval.
  • Any other functions vested upon it by this Constitution or the law.